There are many Western sources that are the basis of evidence that may surprise many researchers. Both Armenian scholars, Turkish scholars, and Western scholars have used these sources to present a certain viewpoint or conclusion.

However, perhaps if one were to read the sources themselves they would be able to draw a more accurate conclusion of their own.

It is important to note that no matter what the perspective, many political positions on the Armenian Genocide Debate do involve archival material and thus no political position should be persecuted because each side's research is significant and substantial.

German Archives

German Armenian Genocide Archives

Germany an ally of the Ottomans during World War I as the leading nation of the Central Powers, had many communications between diplomats and took meticulous archives of the events that occurred in Ottoman Turkey and they had the most access of any European power.

Defense of Armenians

  • Djemal Pasha, leader of CUP, and the Turkish Fourth Army decrees that every Muslim who attacked an Armenian would face court martial - Reported by German Consul in Aleppo, Walter Rossler. [1]
  • Talaat Pasha, Minister of Interior, CUP leader, decrees that attacks on Armenian convoys are forbidden. Ambassador to Constantinople, Hohenlohe-Langenburg suspects that this decree was not incredibly successful because of the arbitrary rule of provincial authorities. [2]

Perpetrators of Massacres

  • Turf war between Circassians and Kurds over plundering of Armenians - German Consul Walter Rossler [3]

British Archives

British Armenian Genocide Archives
The British archives (, are mostly made up of communications and information submitted by British Foreign Office employees and diplomats.


  • British Ambassador in Istanbul, Sir Henry Layard's communication with Babiali. [4]
  • Ottoman request for 6 million pounds loan. [5]
  • Ismail Hakki Pasha was informed by his government and Sir Henry Layard (British Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire) to provide security and protection for Armenians and to be aware of Russian interests to incite rebellion. - [6]
  • Atrocities committed by Armenian legionnaires in the French army, inside Cilicia, Turkey. [7]

United States Archives

United States Archives
Many of the documents in U.S. archives seem to be telegrams, usually involving Henry Morganthau and sometimes Morganthau's memoirs are referenced.

  • American Consul J. B. Jackson reports to Henry Morgenthau of 500,000 Armenian immigrants in Syria receiving US aid during the Armenian Relocation laws (Tehcir Law) in 1916. [8]
  • The US Consul J. B. Jackson sent a dispatch to the US ambassador Henry Morganthau on February 8th 1916 informing him that 500,000 Armenian migrants had arrived in Syria and that 500 gold liras were being spent each week on them and attaching a list of 486,000 individuals who were receiving Ottoman assistance in their resettlement. [9]
  • Consul Jackson reported that 625,000 Armenians were alive there by 1921. [10]
  • Governor of Der-El-Zor, built homes for Armenians, and sought to provide food, clothing, and medical care. [11]
  • Talaat Pasha explains to Morganthau in person that they are working hard to protect the Armenian deportees, and vows to punish those who mistreat the Armenians during this process [12]
  • Consul Davis blames massacre of deportees on Kurds, Gendarmes, and Chettes. Davis explains, Chettes, are brigands who preyed upon all travelers, not just Armenians. [13]
  • Zenop Bezjian, representative of Armenian Protestants asked Henry Morgenthau for help in the various camps of relocated Armenians. Bezjian said
    Zenop Bezjian wrote:
    Armenians at [Der-el] Zor are fairly satisfied; they have already settled down to business and are earning their livings."
    [14] [15]

Russian Archives

Russian Archives
Russian Ambassador Zinovyev March 6th 1909, reports:

Russian Ambassador Zinovyev wrote:

two Moslem and an Armenian had just been elected to the Ottoman parliament, and that there had been no sign of hostility between the Moslems and the Armenians. The Turks, and in particular, the Turkish officers have been on very good terms with the Armenians. But the Armenians, who have been instigated against the Turks and the Moslem by their revolutionary associations, do not forge close ties to their Moslem neighbors.


Armenian Archives

Armenian Archives
Among Armenian sources are the Armenian Patriarchate and Armenian scholars, professors, historians, government officials, and authors. Armenian National Archives have been locked for years, the Armenian government has been called to open their archives multiple times by the Turkish government and historical organizations.

  • The Armenian National Delegation was headed by Boghos Nubar Pasha, who said on May 24, 1917 to the Allies:
    Boghos Nubar Pasha wrote:
    Notwithstanding the large number of victims of massacres and deporations, most of the Armenians have been able to escape or survive extermination.
    [17] [18]

Armenian Population

Armenian population in Ottoman Turkey according to different Armenian sources:

  • Pasdermadjian in his book states: 2,100,000.
  • Richard Hovannisian states: 1,500,000-2,000,000.
  • Armenian clerical writer, Vahan Vardapet, states in an Armenian published Newspaper in Constantinople, the Djeridei Sharkieh on December, 1886: 1,263,000

Foreign Sources

This area has archival material of a variety of European and non-European nations that are not large enough to include in other sections.

Armenian Population

  • Vital Cuinet who researched the Armenian population in the Ottoman Empire on behalf of the Debt Commission (because the Ottomans had to pay their debts to Europe), he reports the following: - Muslim: 14,856,118
    - Armenian: 1,475,011
    - Other Christians: 1,285,853
    - Jewish: 123,947
    - Foreigners: 170,822
    Total: 17,911,751
    The statistics by Vital Cuinet appear in the French Yellow Book and thus were accepted as the official numbers prior to the war. [19]
  • 1912-1913 - An Armenian, Marcel Leart states the Armenian population in Ottoman Turkey as 1,018,000 in all Turkish provinces of Erzurum, Van, Bitlis, Harput, Diyarbekir, Sivas. Marcel Leart's real name was Krikor Zohrap.
  • 1913 - Ludovic de Constenson states that the Armenian population in the world is 3,100,000; in Turkey as 1,400,000; in Russia 1,550,000.
  • Lynch states in his book that the Armenian population in the Ottoman Empire was 1,325,246.
  • Viconte de Coursons wrote in his book that he used Cuinet's figures.
  • Alexander Powell explains that the Armenian population in Turkey was 1,500,000.
  • Christopher Walker states the Armenian population in Turkey was between 1,500,000-2,000,000.
  • Clair Price reports that prior to World War I there were 1,000,000 Armenians in Turkey.
  • 1910 edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica states the Armenian population in Turkey: 1,500,000. The article was written by a British author.
  • 1953 edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica states the Armenian population in Turkey: 2,500,550. The article was written by an Armenian author.

Ottoman Archives

Turkish Ottoman Archives
Ottoman-Turkish Archives are accessible today in Istanbul, Turkey. They have been open beginning in the 1980s but many archives were not cataloged in the initial opening. Today, most of what relates to the Armenian Genocide allegations have been uncovered and new research has changed historians' beliefs about the alleged Armenian Genocide.

  • The Decree of Return - Permission for Armenians to return to their homes in the Ottoman Empire. [20]
  • Telegram about methods used to transport the Armenians. [21]
  • Protection to be given to Armenian Convoys during the Tehcir (Relocation) Law. [22]
  • Armenian Children being returned to their families in the Ottoman Empire. [23] [24] [25]
  • 1,397 individuals were tried and convicted by military courts for offenses against Armenians. Many were put to death. [26]
  • Warrant of arrest for Turkish Gendarmes who failed to protect Armenian convoys as part of their duty (sending them to Court-Martial) on 6 September 1915. [27]
  • Warrant of arrest for Kaymakam (District Governor) of Aziziye for crimes against Armenians. [28]
  • Warrant for arrest of Kaymakam of Tonos (October 24, 1915) for failing to protect Armenian citizens. (order by the CUP government)[29]
  • Return of Armenian property from storage to their rightful Armenian owners. [30]
  • March 20, 1919 - 232,617 Armenians and Greeks returned to the Ottoman Empire and received their property and valuables temporarily being stored for them. [31]

Armenian Population

  • In 1893: 1,157,519
  • In 1905: 1,173,233
  • In 1914: 1,294,851


  1. ^ PA, T. 183/36/A 11957 (fiche 7117) -
  2. ^ Hohenlohe to Berlin - Sept. 25th, 1915, PA T. 183/39/A 28578 (fiche 7129) -
  3. ^ Rossler to Wangenheim - June 29, 1915, PA, Botsch. K./169 (fiche 7249) -
  4. ^ British Archives Foreign Office, October 24th 1878 FO 424/76 #23 enclosure. -
  5. ^ British Archives Foreign Office FO 424/73 #261 -
  6. ^ British Archives Foreign Office FO 424/74 #388 enclosure -
  7. ^ Commander-in-chief of Egyptian Expeditionary Forces to British High Commissioner (Foreign Office), April 15, 1919 - FO 371/4165/79400 -
  8. ^ US Archives State Department Record Group 59, 867.48/271 -
  9. ^ US Archives NARA RG 59, 867.48/271, cited in Sarafian, Vol I, p.112ff -
  10. ^ US Archives NARA, T 1192 R2. 860J.01-395 -
  11. ^ Jackson Summary Report of March 4, 1918, in Sarafian, United States Official Documents on the Armenian Genocide, vol. 2, p. 224 -
  12. ^ May 2, 1915, US Ambassador Morganthau, LC, Morganthau Papers. Morganthau to Washginton, reel 7 -
  13. ^ United States Official Documents on the Armenian Genocide, vol. 3 by Sarafian (2005), July 24, 1915, p. 26
  14. ^ September 26, 1915, LC, reel 5 - US Ambassador Morganthau, Morganthau Diary
  15. ^ The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey A Disputed Genocide by Guenter Lewy (2005), p. 216
  16. ^ Russian State Archives Foreign Policy Section, no. 37, p. 252 -
  17. ^ The Armenian Question and the Peace Congress, forwarded to US Secretary of State October 25, 1917, NA, RG 59, 867.4016/364 (M 353, roll 46, fr. 312) -
  18. ^ The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey A Disputed Genocide by Guenter Lewy (2008), p. 237
  19. ^ Lynch II, Page 412 -
  20. ^ BOA, Bab-i Ali Evrak Odasi, No. 341055 -
  21. ^ BOA, DH, SFR, No. 55/292 -
  22. ^ BOA, DH, SFR, No. 54/10 -
  23. ^ BOA, DH, SFR No. 96/248 -
  24. ^ BOA, HR, MU No. 43/2-17 -
  25. ^ The Story of 1915 by Yusuf Halacoglu (2008), Appendices
  26. ^ Kamuran Gurun, using Ottoman-Turkish archives - The Armenian File p. 213
  27. ^ BOA, DH, SFR, No. 57/309 -
  28. ^ BOA, DH, SFR, No. 57/116 -
  29. ^ BOA, DH, SFR, No. 57/105 -
  30. ^ BOA, DH, SFR, No. 96/230 -
  31. ^ State Archives - 1995 - Documents 228-232 and 254 -